Wednesday, September 23, 2020
முகப்பு சமூகம் அறிவியல்-தொழில்நுட்பம் காப்புரிமை அநீதியால் காணமல் போகும் கண்டுபிடிப்புகள்!

காப்புரிமை அநீதியால் காணமல் போகும் கண்டுபிடிப்புகள்!

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காப்பிரைட்தொழில்நுட்ப வளர்ச்சி ஏற்படுத்தியிருக்கும் பிரமிப்பு அதன் பயன்பாடு, பலரையும் இன்றைய தொழில்நுட்ப சகாப்தத்தில் பிறந்ததற்கும் வாழ்வதற்கும் பெருமைப்பட வைத்திருக்கிறது. தொழில்நுட்பம் சகல துறைகளிலும் பாய்ச்சல் வேகத்தில் முன்னேறியிருப்பதுடன், கடந்த சகாப்தங்களில் சாத்தியமற்றதாக கருதப்பட்ட பலவற்றையும் நிகழ்த்தி காட்டி சாதித்துள்ளது.

அதே நேரம் தொழில்நுட்பமும், அதன் வளர்ச்சியும், முழுவீச்சுடன் சுதந்திரமாக முன்னேறிச் செல்லவில்லை, இன்றைய காப்புரிமை சட்டங்கள் புதிய தொழில் நுட்ப வளர்ச்சியை தடை செய்கின்றன என்கின்றது ஒரு முதலாளித்துவ பொருளாதார ஆய்வு. பங்கு முதலீட்டாளர்கள், முதலீட்டு கம்பெனிகள் இசைபதிவு நிறுவனங்கள், கம்பெனிகளில் செய்யப்பட்ட ஆய்வு மற்றும் நேர்காணல்களில் இருந்து பல புதிய புரட்சிகரமான தொழில்நுட்பங்கள் காப்புரிமை சட்டங்களால் சந்தைக்கே வரமால் இருந்துவிட்டது தெரியவந்துள்ளது. முதலாளிகளின் லாபத்தை பாதுகாப்பது மட்டுமல்ல அவை வளர்ந்துவரும் தொழில்நுட்பத்திற்கே எதிராக இருப்பது கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.

புதிய தொழில்நுட்பத்தை கண்டுபிடிப்பவர்கள் தனது கண்டுபிடிப்பிற்கு உரிய அங்கீகாரம், பலனை பெற்றுக் கொள்ளவும், அதை பாதுகாப்பதற்காகத்தான் காப்புரிமை சட்டங்கள் இருக்கின்றன, அவை சரியானவை என்று பலரும் கருதுகிறார்கள். ஆனால், ஒரு தொழில்நுட்பம் ஏற்கனவே இருக்கும் தொழில்நுட்பத்தை பயன்படுத்தி அதை செம்மைப்படுத்துவதன் மூலம் தான் உருவாகிறது, உருவாக முடியும் என்பதை யாரும் மறுக்கமுடியாது. ஒரு தொழில்நுட்பம் புதிதாக உருவாகி சந்தைக்கு வரும் போது அது காப்புரிமை சட்டத்தால் கட்டுப்படுத்தப்படுவதன் மூலம் பலரும் அதை பயன்படுத்துவதும்,  செம்மைப்படுத்துவதும், பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியடைவதும் தடை செய்யப்படுகிறது.

உலகில் மனிதனின் முதல் கண்டுபிடிப்புகளான நெருப்பும், சக்கரமும் தான் அனைத்து விஞ்ஞான வளர்சிக்கும், மனித சமூக வளர்சிக்கும் அடித்தளம்.  நெருப்பும், சக்கரமும் கண்டுபிடிக்கப்படவில்லையெனில் இன்றைய பல கண்டுபிடிப்புகளும், நவீன உலகமும் கூட இல்லை. தனது கண்டுபிடிப்பு என்று புதிய தொழில்நுட்பத்தை மூடிவைத்துக்கொள்ளும் இந்த முதலாளித்துவ நிறுவனங்கள், நெருப்பு, சக்கரத்தின் கண்டுபிடிப்பிற்கு ராயல்டி கொடுப்பதாக இருந்தால் முழு மனித சமூகத்திற்கும் பல பில்லியன் டாலர் கொடுக்க வேண்டும்.

ஏற்கனவே பயன்பாட்டில் இருக்கும் கண்டுபிடிப்பு, காப்புரிமையின் மூலம் மூடிவைக்கப்பட்டிருக்குமேயானால், அதை பயன்படுத்தி அதிலிருந்து புதியதாக ஒன்றையும் தன்னால் கண்டுபிடித்திருக்க முடியாது என்பது வெட்க்ககேடான உண்மை. வளர்ச்சி பெற்றிருக்கும் தொழில்நுட்பத்தின் மூலம் தான் மட்டுமே லாபம் சம்பாதிக்க வேண்டும் என்கிற லாபவெறியால் எதையும் சமூகத்திற்கு அளிக்காமல் “காப்புரிமை” என்ற பெயரில் தடையிட்டும் திரையிட்டும் மறைத்து வைக்கிறது முதலாளித்துவம்.

தொழில்நுட்பமும், அதன் பயன்பாடும் சமூகத்திற்கு பொதுவாக்கப்படும் போது அது அளப்பரிய சாதனைகளை ஏற்படுத்தும் என்பது ஏற்கனவே சோசலிச ரஷ்யாவிலும், சோசலிச சீனாவிலும், நிருபிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. தற்கால சமூகத்திலும், லினெக்ஸ் இயங்குதள அமைப்பு (LINUX Operating Sytem-OS) திறந்த மென்பொருளாகவும் (Open Source), காப்புரிமை கட்டுப்பாடுகளற்ற திறந்த உரிமமுள்ளதாகவும் (Open Licence) இருக்கிறது.

இவ்வாறு கட்டுப்பாடுகளற்று இருப்பதால், சமூகத்தில் எவரும் அந்த மென்பொருளை தரவிறக்கம் செய்து பயன்படுத்தலாம், அந்த மென்பொருளின் மேம்பாட்டிற்கும் வளர்ச்சிக்கும் எவரும் பங்களிக்கலாம். இதன் மூலம் இன்று லினெக்ஸ்-இல் பல அளப்பறிய சாதனைகள் நிகழ்த்தப்பட்டு, பீடுநடை போடுகிறது. சமூகரீதியிலான உற்பத்தி மற்றும் தொழில்நுட்ப மேம்பாடு, சமூகரீதியிலான பயன்பாடு என்பதற்கு லினெக்ஸ் சிறந்த உதாரணமாகும்.

முதலாளித்துவ சமூகத்தில் சொத்துடமை சார்ந்த உற்பத்தி உறவுகள் பெரும்பான்மை மக்களான  உற்பத்திசக்திகளுக்கு பொருத்தமில்லாமல் இருப்பதுடன்  உற்பத்திசக்திகளின் வளர்ச்சியை தடை செய்யும் விலங்காகவும் மாறிவிடுகின்றன என்றார் மார்க்ஸ். அந்த விலங்கை உடைத்தெறியாத வரை சமூகத்தின் பயன்பாட்டிற்கான சமூக நலனுக்கான தொழில்நுட்பம் வளராது, சமூகமும் அடுத்த கட்டத்திற்கு நகராது.

படிக்க

சந்தா செலுத்துங்கள்

இணையத்தில் உழைக்கும் மக்களின் குரலாக பதினோரு ஆண்டுகளாக போராடும் வினவுடன் கை கோருங்கள். ஆதரியுங்கள்

  1. Superb article. Locking knowledge for the profit of few is evil! Apple, Microsoft, GE etc are doing this crime. Also, life saving medicines are patented and monopolized by large corps. It is time to eradicate all patents, copyrights etc. Only sane argument is that the author/inventor/creator should be given credit and compensated fairly. That’s all. I am a proud user of Linux and I have written many opensource applications.

  2. Article looks good and used Linux as reference but I feel if they have patent rights and release the product to the market then it is ok. Most companies, they are just filing their ideas as patent and not trying anything on that idea. Private company files thousands of ideas like this by spending money on that. Also they have team to check the market if any product infringe with their ideas then sue them and get money from them and block that product. With this activity many ideas are not reaching the people.
    At present people mentality is totally different. No one wants to work for charity. Everyone needs money. If they won’t make money then they won’t spend time on new invention. I agree there are many free wares in market. But we can count them. They are exceptional. We can use them as a reference but not as an example. Even now many companies started using Linux OS not as they are also going to share their product code but they can cut their money for OS and increase the product profit margin. Even though Linux have many licensing terms and conditions product company have big legal advisor team and find loop holes in it and till now they are using it. This patent right for freeware about software (method) are holds good for your argument. There are many patents available for hardware (apparatus) as well those things we cannot find anything similar to Linux.
    So finally how am differ from you is if we relax patent rights instead of increasing with invention it will degrade the new inventions. Because current people mentality is corrupted like that.

    –Balaji S

    • Yes Steve wozniak is right to some extent. When they release iPhone first with all touch features and different look and feel (they might have spent 5~7 years time to come up with that product). They copy cat companies simply copied the product and release the same product with different brand name into the market. But that time I don’t know why Apple kept mum (may be apples were using Samsung’s processor display etc). Now they started using apples’ own and filing cases against the copy cat companies.
      Here Samsung and other company doing is not improvement in invention. Samsung, HTC etc., companies just stealing Apple’s working creating new idea and making money with their marketing strategy.
      Same in LCD and LED TV market, Samsung spend a lot in invention. But once they release product into market many competitor company copy the same and come up with similar TVs.
      Here no one can give correct Answer how to encourage the inventors to invent more and generate new inventors without money making plan.

      • Have you not heard about LG prada? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LG_Prada
        Your blind support for apple and calling others as copycat shows your ignorence. Apple shamelessly copied eveyone else in industry from mouse to GUI, the copied everything. their crappy ios and osx are based on BSD. Their ruthless profit margins, inability to compete in market and thretening even small shops for logos are outragious. Claiming that they own patent for things like rectangle with rounded corners and slide to unlock are laughable.

        Thanks God! Apple had dug their own grave with iphone 5. Soone or later, more open and sophisticated OS/hardwares will replace apple’s and google’s dominance in mobile space.

        • See if LG has invented the touch screen first they should have sued the Apple. But even iPhone released first iPhone on Jan 2007 and commercialized it on Jun 2007. If you check the development of iPhone it might have taken more than 5 years. But if you check the LG prada it won’t be more than 6 months. I know very well about LG and Samsung. But these people are also Pioneer in many fields. But in this mobile field they are a copy cat. When Nokia was ruling the mobile technology they followed Nokia. Now iPhone is ruling the smart phone section so they are following it. Here am not supporting Apple. I am supporting invention and not supporting copy cats. That why I mentioned Samsung did lot of invention in LCD and LED TVs but other copy cats copied from there. This method won’t help to improve the innovations. Motorola and Nokia were known for their innovations. But because of these copy cats their market share are very low now.
          Regarding Google Android, Even before android many Linux OS were there in market for mobile devices. But none go hit. They introduced it as a platform with basic applications. And allowed APIs to access core OS as well. (this is same as Symbian from Nokia and iOS from Apple). Since the open source nature that is getting hit. We have to appreciate this innovation rather than envy on their popularity. Instead of telling some sophisticated OS will replace these, why can’t you / we people invent such things? Which is blocking us? Money!!! Nothing else. Let us say, If we get enough money for such invention no one will try such things next time. If we get enormous amount money then we our self keep try to get better. This is what happening everywhere.
          Once again I am telling am not supporting Apple, Samsung or LG etc., I am supporting inventions not copy cats.
          Let me come to the patents for rectangle with rounded corners, I doubt this patent. If you have any link for such patents share it with me. But slide to unlock, when everyone was running behind hardware buttons these people came with touch and patented (80 patents) many of their new ideas. Out those 80 slide to unlock may be one of those. But many core patents are also there (like optimized the network search, video decoder to optimize the battery usage etc). For your information even well before iPhone reveals the touch, Microsoft’s surface (also called tabletop) was very well known in the industry around 2004~2005. (Now Microsoft releasing its surface as tablet PC). But after Apple unveils iPhone Microsoft slowly changed its plan for the tabletop to tablet. This is because Apple started its R&D on touch screen is well before Microsoft. And in US patent law accepts those work articles for patents and these people got patent well before LG Prada. This is the reason behind why everyone is losing to Apple when they sue them.
          Regarding the GUI and Mouse; First GUI based OS was released by Mac OS from Apple. But Microsoft used the same and markets it well. Mouse, similar device was used very well in other industry. But Apple used it first in Computer field. But I don’t know any information about patented that. But now you people are telling they have copied it from others. At least to prevent the false message propagation patent is required 🙂 .
          Regarding acquiring the small companies who owns patents, I am very much against this. Not only Apple all big companies doing this. This is bad practice. This will increase the mentality of the people to generate some idea and make a prototype of it and sell it for huge money. These sorts of practices make people to generate idea only for money.

          Finally as you said, yes one day both Apple and Google will go and new one will come. But if people mentallity remains same then new company name only will get changed from Apple and Google to some X but behavious will be same.

          Compare to apple, google is better as it provides many stuff for free. (many arguements are there for this as well).

          • //Instead of telling some sophisticated OS will replace these, why can’t you / we people invent such things? Which is blocking us? Money!!! Nothing else. Let us say, If we get enough money for such invention no one will try such things next time. If we get enormous amount money then we our self keep try to get better. This is what happening everywhere.//

            Did Linus Torvalds developed Linux for money? Or what bout all those non-profit organizations? GNU, BSD, C, C++ all these are not developed with profit in mind. Your computer knowledge is laughable. Really pitty you. Microsoft is investing lot on Windows but that is the worst OS next to OSX. Why? Most webservers run in Linux. Super computers run in Linux. Not on operating systems developed with large investments and profits. Why? Do you say Apple invented touch screen? Do you mean to say they introduced the first touch screen phone? Do you know about IBM’s Simon? Your comparision is like comparing a server with video game. Your video game entertains you. But in terms of power and functionality, my server wins… Likewise, a phone which doesn’t allow you to share files in bluetooth, upload files in browser, install apps you yourself had developed etc is a big *FAIL*

            • I don’t have any other opinion for Linux, BSD, GNU etc., I never mentioned anything negative on open source or freeware. I am asking you, me and us!!! Did you contribute anything to the world? It is easy to point out these people have done those people have done. What we are doing? Why we are not doing? This is my question. I asked which is blocking us. Even Google has done everything for free. You are against it. Also I discussed mainly about current people mentality. That people are not focusing for making enough money. They wanted to make enormous money.
              I never mentioned “apple invented touch screen”. Simple Google search can tell you this. Don’t try to show off that you only have knowledge. I pointed all your baseless points against Apple. This doesn’t mean that I am supporting to hold patents. On this front I clearly told in my previous comment that “Here no one can give correct Answer how to encourage the inventors to invent more and generate new inventors without money making plan” Also am against copy cats. Also I mentioned instead simply holding the patent and not working on it, better hold patent and release product for that idea.
              Does apple failed for app development?? This tells your knowledge!!! You are giving false information and I am correcting it. Not supporting it.
              Also you should know touch screen is different from stylus based screen.
              If you want to win you have to play video game only (litter note). But I never compare any server in my comment.

              • //What we are doing? Why we are not doing? //

                I am already an opensource developer. I don’t want to reveal my projects info as it will reveal my personal identity. Every weekend I spend few hours for contributing to opensource community. No profit here. But just what I can do for the common good. Just like an ant’s share.

                I call you to do the same. Even if you don’t know coding, you can contribute by documentation, translation, beta testing, bug reporting, constructive (not always positive) criticism etc. Instead don’t support monopolies which exploit both employees and the customers.

                • Good that you are contributing to open source (you have mentioned the same in your first comment itself). Also revealing identity won’t be a crime. This can lead to get many people to support you and get support from you. Keep contributing. Definitely I will give my contribution.
                  I used” you, me and us” to point finger on Majority of the people. Actually I should have put it as “you (since u r contributing this you is not you), me and us”.
                  I was part of patent prior art search team. That’s why I mentioned that at least patent an idea and working on that to develop that idea is ok but just file a patent to protect others from working on that is worse. Also I was majorly differing from you on giving false details about Apple. Apple may be doing wrong, but what it is doing we have to tell correctly. Nothing else.

                  • I won’t reveal my identity in Vinavu website. This is not github 😀

                    That’s fine. Even if you personally ditch me with words, I don’t mind. But what I feel offensive with you is that you worked for patent prior art search team. Patent is morally evil. Anyone working “for” patents are also supporting the evil directly or indirectly, knowingly or unknowingly.

                    Still I am standing with each and every word I have said here. If someone imagine something, that never means that they own monopoly over the same. For example, I am imagining nano particles eating away heart blocks, brain blood clots, cancers, cataracts, ear wax etc. Also I am imagining table top nuclear reactor which can convert copper to hydrogen, silicon to diamond etc. Will anyone ever bother? But when some rich corporates like Apple does this, they call it patent. This is absurd.

                    • Reveal you identity is your personal. But reveal your identity in Vinavu won’t harm you, instead it may help others. Even Vinavu itself can get some support from you.
                      Having difference in opinion doesn’t mean that we have to ditch that person. “If someone imagine something that never means that they own monopoly over the same. For example, I am imagining nano particles eating away heart blocks, brain blood clots, cancers, cataracts, ear wax etc. Also I am imagining table top nuclear reactor which can convert copper to hydrogen, silicon to diamond etc. Will anyone ever bother” See I am also against this only. Having a concept, with money file them as patent and wait to see the market and if someone work on that, with this patent get money from them or block them to bring the product in to market is more evil than you have concept, patent and do real R & D on that and come up with product. Your opinion is both are evil. For me at present 1st one is more evil than 2nd one. Also at present people mentality is, if no money no invention. Even they are not satisfied with enough money for their invention, they want to make hefty money out of their invention.
                      You are telling patent is Evil, this same evil is practiced since 500BC it seems http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent and most of the inventions are patented. But not like modern days monopolies.

  3. /// தொழில்நுட்பமும், அதன் வளர்ச்சியும், முழுவீச்சுடன் சுதந்திரமாக முன்னேறிச் செல்லவில்லை, இன்றைய காப்புரிமை சட்டங்கள் புதிய தொழில் நுட்ப வளர்ச்சியை தடை செய்கின்றன என்கின்றது ஒரு முதலாளித்துவ பொருளாதார ஆய்வு///

    பாலாஜி, இதை நம்ம வினவு கண்டுபிடிச்சு சொல்லலை. கட்டுரையில் குறிப்பிடப்பட்டிருக்கும் லின்க்கை கிளிக்கி படிச்சு பாருங்க பாஸ். ஒரு முதலாளித்துவ பொருளாதார நிபுணர் தான் சொல்லியிருக்கார்.
    நீங்க சொல்றது மாதிரி பாத்தா, நியூட்டன், மைகேல் பாரடே, ஐன்ஸ்டீன் இன்னும் பல விஞ்ஞானிகள் லாப நோக்கத்தில் தான் தனது ஆய்வுகளை செய்தார்களா ? லாபம் கிடைக்கவில்லை என்பதால் தனது ஆய்வை நிறுத்திக்கொண்டார்களா என்ன?

    பல விஞ்ஞான கண்டுபிடிப்புகளின் அடிப்படையில் தான் தொழில்நுட்பம் வளர்கிறது, அந்த அடிப்படையில் பார்த்தால் அறிவு என்பது சமூகத்தில் இருந்து பெறப்பட்டது. அது என்னுடையது, எனக்கே எனக்கானது என்று யாரும் சொந்தம் கொண்டாட முடியாது.

    • 🙂 still i am not supporting patents. I said compare to just holding patents, atleast they should relase products. And i mainly discussed about current people mentality. Dont bring the list again holding non profit organization and all.

      Also just for your information most of the scienctist on that time were try to make any metal to Gold. From that only they invented many things. Newton, Einstein some (or many) exceptional scientist were also there. But now a days such people are less or not there at all. They do many inventions for money only. This is fact.

      • /// i mainly discussed about current people mentality.///
        ///But now a days such people are less or not there at all. They do many inventions for money only. This is fact.////

        கட்டுரையும் தற்போதைய சமூக அமைப்பை பற்றி தானுங்க பேசுகிறது?
        தற்போதைய முதலாளித்துவ சமூக அமைப்பு எல்லாவற்றையும் லாப நோக்குடன் பார்ப்பதால், சமூக பயன்பாட்டிற்கான தொழில்நுட்பம் வளர்வது சாத்தியமற்றதாக இருப்பதை தானே கட்டுரை சுட்டிக்காட்டுகிறது, அதனால் சமூக மாற்றம் ஏற்பட வேண்டும் என்று சொல்கிறது?
        இதில் எங்கு நீங்கள் முரண்படுகிறீர்கள்?

        முதலில் முரண்படுவது போல ஆரம்பித்து பின்னர் சேம் சைடு கோல் போட்டு ஏன் இப்படி ராவடி பண்றீங்க ?

        • “முதலில் முரண்படுவது போல ஆரம்பித்து பின்னர் சேம் சைடு கோல் போட்டு ஏன் இப்படி ராவடி பண்றீங்க ?”

          so you are clear that i am not differing from the article. What point you are trying to make here? Just to put your comment and to show people that you are defending the article as if am against the article. is it? This is what called Corporatism. And you are doing is knowingly.

        • பாலாஜி, கட்டுரையில் நீங்கள் எங்கு, எதில் முரண்படுகிறீர்கள் என்று கேட்டிருந்தேனே?

          இதற்கு முன்னால் இருந்த சமூகம் இப்பொதைய சமூகம் எல்லாமுமே சொத்துடைமையை அடிப்படையாகக்கொண்டது. இந்த சமூக அமைப்பபி மாற்றாதவரை ஆய்வுகளும், தொழில்நுட்பமும் சமூக நோக்குடையதாக இருக்காது, அதனால் சமூகத்தை மாற்றவேண்டும்.

          சமூகத்தை மாற்ற வேண்டும் என்பதை நீங்கள் ஏற்கிறீர்களா? இல்லையா?

      • ////just for your information most of the scienctist on that time were try to make any metal to Gold.////

        அறிவியியல் வளர்ச்சியின் வறலாற்றை பற்றிய உங்க அறிவை அப்படியே கொண்டுபோய் உங்க வீட்டு அடுப்புல வைங்க.. தங்கமா ஜொலிக்கும் இல்லைன்னா, கேஸ், மண்ணென்னெய், விறகு எதுவுமில்லாம அடுப்பு தானா ஜெகஜோதியா எரியும் ! கெரகம்…

        • so you mean to say every scientist started worked as social service guys, isnt it? Good keep it up.
          If you want to know the reality read books other that your curriculum text books.

          • have you read about TRIPS agreement

            nowadays process oriented patents had become product (without any novelity)

            Do you have any idea about the so called scientists who got patents ON NEEM,TURMERIC,BASMATHI.

            if patent rights act was existed before 1000 years

            ruling class party and bureaucrats will own the patents like H2SO4,FORGING of metals,
            transistors.

            what will be happened to the small scale BUSINESS,WORKSHOP started in those days

            then growth of the science??????????????

            • Nagarj, Are you trying to say that scientists are doing research as social service or not? If Business comes with invention then all these patents or something similar will be there. I don’t understand what your point is. You are telling scientists are trying to patent “NEEM, Turmeric, Basmathi, etc.” that’s what I’m also telling they are not social workers. May be you people say these are modern scientists. But I am saying even in old days also majority of scientists tried to make money out of their inventions (many exceptions are also there). For that only I said as an example those days many researches were taken place to convert other metal to noble metal Gold. While trying that they invented many.
              Regarding TRIPS also, I don’t understand how it is related here.

  4. this is answer for copycat comment
    just think what would be happen if the products/processes like H2SO4,FORGING of metals,
    transistors are already patented

    i am not telling all the scientists are social workers even in olden days.

    A critical resource or a scientist should be praised by society but HOW LONG.

    reward for a scientist(not the present day scientists/technocrats) is his invention(not just money).

    • At present once patent is granted, then it is valid for 17 years or 20 years from date of filing – this is in US. ‘cas of TRIPS same is followed in many countries, developing countries may have different terms. Also it varies from country to country.
      But what corporate people doing is, if an idea is generating huge revenue then they do small enhancement to the existing idea and file a new patent and again hold the rights for another 20 years.
      “just think what would be happen if the products/processes like H2SO4,FORGING of metals,
      transistors are already patented” – For your information Transistor idea was patented in 1925. But when scientist relay came up with a device they were not able to patent it again as it was invalidated due to prior art of existing idea. I have to thank you for these questions which helped me to search for when patenting idea started. You people won’t believe it, it started in 500BC (I don’t know how much this info is reliable) see this link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent
      Even telephone invention was patented by Graham Bell. And most of the inventions were patented. But those patents were owned by individuals. But now a day’s those are owned by corporate companies. That’s the reason behind all these dominations and monopolies.

  5. வினவு

    i think you written no of articles on patent rights

    further effects of TRIPS agreements are explained

    if a company is having a patent.when should a company give that product to society.

    what is happening really

  6. I am just not able to understand all the fuss and talk about non profit / not for profit organizations. And they are funded by what? and don’t they need money? If they need money, it is for what? It is just a fancy to think that only they are good for society and they are doing good for the society, rest of the society is useless is it?
    What ever the profit made by these patented MNCs are also coming back to the society in some way or the other or not?

    If at all some one (Scientist) did invention and left to the society – it is either out of ignorance (or) the market was not there at the time of invention (or) his livelihood was taken care of (or) funded by the “Emperors & King”.
    Rest of the people(Scientist) are still mortal human beings and need money for feeding themselves and their family and their research.

    “Donate to Wikipedia”

    THERE IS NO FREE LUNCH IN THIS WORLD EVER.

    //https://donate.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:FundraiserLandingPage&country=IN&uselang=en&utm_medium=sidebar&utm_source=donate&utm_campaign=C12_en.wikipedia.org

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    //
    One of Vinavu’s Article “பேஸ்புக் உங்களை விற்பது தெரியுமா?”

    Btw what is the difference between a Mutt and a Non / not for profit org? Means the fundamental of operating – not the principles / intention etc., if you feel they are different :-)?
    MARX SAID : Doubt everything!!!!

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